The co-operative becomes one of the legal organizational forms with the most convenient fiscal regime in Romania due to Law 164/ 29th of July 2016.
New fiscal facilities for agriculture co-operatives
based under Law 566/2004 and their members are now granted. Article 21 of Law
164/2016 mentions that the services and goods provided by such organizations to
their shareholders will not be considered a sales commercial action. It means
that, even if the cooperative has a VAT registration, buying products through
these kind of organizations will help members save 20% of the expenses. (art.
In addition, processing co-operatives will be free
from the tax on profit for 5 years. The same will be the case for co-operatives
established in order to facilitate the acquisition of materials and technical
equipment and for those who are selling agricultural products, if their yearly
turnover is smaller than 2.000.000 euro. (art. 25)
The same document mentions that co-operative members
registered as authorized persons, individual enterprises and microentreprises
will also be excepted from the tax on income, but only for the goods sold
throughout the co-operative.
advantages do not stop here. The law also decides the exemption from the tax on
property for the owners of the buildings used by the co-operatives and no
charge for the incomes obtained by landowners from the farming rent.
The fiscal facilities mentioned by the Law 164/2016 also apply to producers groups and organizations established under Government Rule no. 37/2005.
Another novelty introduced by the document is the
acceptance of a new type of entity: the marketing federation. Its goal is to
supply cooperatives with inputs and to capitalize its production in raw estate,
half or fully processed.
Dear Farmers, do not miss this chance! It's time to become more efficient and more profitable joining your forces with your fellows!
In case you need more info and help, do not hesitate to contact your local authorities!
Medicinal herbs may serve as preventive and curative medicine especially in human and veterinary pathology. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea), an annual succulent member of the Portulacaeae family, one of these "treasure plants”. It is widely spread in Europe, North America, North Africa, Middle East, India, China, Malaysia, Australia. There is archaeological evidence that this species has existed since prehistoric times.
The main groups of active substances of Portulaca oleracea
Portulaca oleracea has substantial medicinal and nutritional properties: high content of l-norepinephrine (l-noradrenaline 0.25% in fresh plant) which is a neurohormone that has antihypotensive properties and reducing bleeding of tissue. The raw plant contains vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, C, nicotinic acid (vitamin PP), α-tocopherol, β-carotene, minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, P, K), melatonin, fatty acids especially omega 3 (purslane has the largest amount of omega 3 of all green vegetables), glutathione, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid. The plant also contains mucilaginous substances, calcium oxalate, malic and citric acid, dopamine, coumarins, flavonoids, alkaloids. In plant composition have been identified portulozide and three monoterpenes glycosides.;;;
Portulaca oleracea uses
Purslane has health benefit in: digestive inflammation, airway inflammation (asthma), inflammation of the bladder (cystitis), urinary stones, diabetes, or skin diseases (Lichen planus). The leaves are diuretic, the seeds are cited as having vermifuge effects .;
Aqueous extracts of purslane have antioxidant properties, reduce lipid peroxidation, reduce oxidative stress, are neuroprotective, provide protection of gastric mucosa and are excellent antifungal and antiviral remedies. 
The fresh plant extract produces faster healing of skin injuries. Crushed leaves are used in gum inflammation.
It can be added in salads or in various dishes like: Purslane Pesto, Tomato Cucumber Purslane Salad; Purslane Spring Salad; Stir-Fried Purslane; Pickled Purslane ;;;
Portulaca oleracea can extract a significant amount of salt from soil, thus soil salinity will be at a reasonable level. 
Studies made in Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Turkey, have concluded that the addition of Portulaca oleracea in the diet of chickens increased significantly egg production and omega 3 content of eggs.
For a healthy life use Purslane!
1. Agha-Hosseini, F., Borhan-Mojabi, K., Monsef-Esfahani, H.R., Mirzaii-Dizgah, I., Etemad-Moghadam, S., Karagah, A., 2010. „Efficacy of purslane in the treatment of oral lichen planus‟;
2. Aydin, R., Dogan, I., 2010. „Fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolk from chickens fed diets supplemented with purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.)‟;
3.Cenk, C.K., Yasemin, S.K., Dilek, A., 2008. „Performance of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) as a salt-removing crop‟;
4. Dong, C.X., Hayashi, K., Lee, J.B., Hayashi, T., 2010. „Characterization of structures and antiviral effects of polysaccharides from Portulaca oleracea L.;
5. El-Sayed, M.I., 2011. „Effects of Portulaca oleracea L. seeds in treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus patients as adjunctive and alternative therapy‟. J Ethnopharmacol, 137(1):643-651;
6.Ramzan, I., 2015.Phytgotherapies: Efficacy, Safety, and Regulation. Publisher John Wiley & Sons, 2015, ISBN 1119006236, 9781119006237 available online at: https://books.google.ro/books?id=nnFuCAAAQBAJ&dq=l-norepinephrine+from+purslane&source=gbs_navlinks_s
7. Rashed, A.N., Afifi, F.U., Disi, A.M. 2003. „Simple evaluation of the wound healing activity of a crude extract of Portulaca oleracea L. (growing in Jordan) in Mus musculus‟, JVI-1. J Ethnopharmacol;
8. Simopoulos, A.P., Tan, D.X., Manchester, L.C., Reiter, R.J. 2005. „Purslane: a plant source of omega-3 fatty acids and melatonin‟;
9. Valnet, J., 1987. „Traitement des Maladies par les légumes et les céréales‟, Maloine S.A. Éditeur. France;
10. Youngwan, S., Jongheon, S., Hyo, J.C., You-Ah Kim Jong, W.A., Lee, B.J. and Dong, S.L. 2003. „A New Monoterpene Glucoside from Portulaca oleracea‟;
Why soybean is such an important crop? The answer is simple, soybean known as Glycine max (L.) Merril is a valuable source of proteins and oils and has a unique influence on the nitrogen cycle in natural ecosystems. The demand for soybean is increasing and in order to meet this demand the soybean yield must be improved (Ainsworth EA 2012, Kawasaki Y 2016).
Soybean is also an important food crop and in a world with an increasing population the biggest challenge in future will be to comply with the demand for food. Another challenge is driven by the fact that in the future it is mandatory to find new sustainable land management strategies for increasing the grain yield per unit.
USA is the largest producer of soybean, followed by Brazil, Argentina, China and India. The USA, Brazil and Argentina are the major exporters of soybeans, and Japan, China and the European Union are the major importers. In the USA, the soybean production has increased over the last 50 years. This stands in contrast with the soybean production in the European Union that is steadily decreasing. The European Union is facing a major deficit of proteins, and the demand for soybean products is increasing. To comply with this demand the EU is forced to import soybeans from other countries.
In Romania areas cultivated with soybean decreased significantly between 2008 and 2010, in average the total area was 50.000 ha. Starting with 2011 areas cultivated with soybean had increased at 71.861 ha. In 2013 the area cultivated with soybean was 67.409 ha, and 2014 was 79.275 ha, harvested area growing with 17.60 %.
According to FAO if we analyze the dynamics of the soybean crop grain yields in 2014 comparing with 2013 we will see that soybean grain yield was growing with 15.06 %.
The area under cultivation and the grain yield increased significantly for soybean crop between 2013 and 2014. This was mainly due to the agricultural policies of the European Union which are aimed to increase the domestic production of vegetable protein to meet the increasing demand for soybean products.
Conservation Agriculture (CA) is one of the key factors in achieving increased grain yields with a minimum impact damage for the environment. Principles and general practices of CA are based on concepts of minimal soil disturbance (NT, MT), permanent organic soil cover, and crop rotation.
There are farmers who clearly see the value of sustainable agriculture. They understand very well that they need to certify their best management practices to satisfy the consumer demand.
ReferencesAinsworth EA, Yendrek CR, Skoneczka JA, Long SP. 2012. "Accelerating yield potential in soybean: potential targets for biotechnological improvement." Plant, cell & environment. 1;35(1) 38-52.
Busari M.A., Kukal S.S, Kaur A., Bhatt R., Dulazi A.A. 2015. "Conservation tillage impacts on soil crop and the environment." International soil and water conservation research 3(2015) 119-129.
Kassam A, Friedrich T. 2011. "Conservation agriculture: principles, sustainable land management and ecosystem services. ." Proceedings of the 40th National Convention of the Italian Agronomy Society 7-9.
Kawasaki Y, Tanaka Y, Katsura K, Purcell LC, Shiraiwa T. 2016. "Yield and dry matter productivity of Japanese and US soybean cultivars." Plant Production Science 2;19(2) 257-66.
Specht J.E, Hume D.J, Kumudini S.V. 1999. "Soybean yield potential—a genetic and physiological perspective." Crop Science.1;39(6) 1560-70.